(THE SEALED NECTAR)
Memoirs of the Noble Prophet
Author: Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
Jamia Salafia - India- .
Translated by: Issam Diab .
Abu Bakr - May
Allah be pleased with him -
In the month Dhul-Qadah or in Dhul-Hijjah of the very year (the ninth of Al-Hijra), the Messenger of Allâh dispatched Abu Bakr - may Allah be pleased with him -, the truthful, as a deputy prince of Al-Hajj (pilgrimage), so that he would lead the Muslims in performing of the pilgrimage rituals.
Soon after the departure of the Muslims, there came a Revelation from Allâh: the opening passages of the Chapter 9 entitled Repentance (Surah Tauba or Baraa) in which freedom from obligation is proclaimed from Allâh in regard to those idolatrous tribes who had shown no respect for the treaties which they had entered into with the Prophet . Communication of this news went in line with the Arabian traditions of making public any change relating to declining conventions of blood and fortunes.
Ali bin Abi Talib was deputed to make this declaration. He overtook Abu Bakr at Al-Arj or Dajnan. Abu Bakr inquired whether the Prophet had put him in command or he had just been commissioned to make the announcement. "I have been deputed to make the proclamation only" replied Ali. The two Companions then proceeded with the pilgrimage process. Towards the close of the rituals, on the day of the ritual sacrifice, Ali stood at Al-Jamrah (a spot at which stones are pelted) and read aloud to the multitudes that thronged around him and declared quittance from covenants with idolaters and giving them four months respite to reconsider their position. As for the other idolaters with whom the believers had a treaty and had abated nothing of the Muslims rights nor had supported anyone against them, then the terms of the treaty would run valid until the duration of which expired.
Abu Bakr then sent some Muslims to declare publicly that no disbeliever would after that year perform pilgrimage, nor would anyone be allowed to make the Tawaf (going round) of the Sacred House unclothed.
That proclamation in fact vetoed all aspects of paganism out of Arabia and stated quite unequivocally that those pre-Islam practices were no longer in operation.
A Meditation on the Ghazawat
Meditation on the Prophets Ghazawat, missions, and the battalions he formed and dispatched, will certainly give us and everybody a true and clear impression that the Prophet was the greatest military leader in the whole world as well as the most righteous, the most insightful and the most alert one. He was not a man of superior genius for this concern but he was also the Master and the greatest of all Messengers as far as Prophethood and Heavenly Message are concerned. Besides, all the battles that he had fought were standard in their application to the requirements of strictness, bravery, and good arrangements that fitted the terms and conditions of war. None of the battles he fought was lost as a consequence of shortage of wisdom or due to any other technical error in army mobilization or a location in a wrong strategical position. The loss of any of his battle was not due to misjudgement about occupying the best and the most appropriate sites of battles, nor was it due to a mischoice of leaders of the fight, for he had proved himself to be a peculiar sort of leader that differs from any of those leaders that our world had known and experienced. As regards Uhud and Hunain events, there were consequences of weakness in some military elements in Hunain; and disobedience to orders in Uhud. Their non-compliance with wisdom and the plan of the battle played a passive role in the course of those two invasions.
His genius was clearly shown in these two battles when the Muslims were defeated; for he stoodfast facing the enemy and managed, by his super wisdom, to thwart the enemys aim as was the case in Uhud. Similarly he managed to change the Muslims defeat in Hunain into a victory. Nothwithstanding the fact that serious grave developments in military operations usually leave the worst impression on the military leaders and entice them to flee for their lives.
We have, so far, discussed the mere aspects of military leadership of the invasions. On the other hand, through these invasions he was able to impose security, institute peace, diffuse dissension and destroy the military might of the enemies through relentless struggle between Islam and paganism.
The Prophet had also profound insight and could differentiate the faithful from the hypocrites and plotters.
Great was the group of military leaders who fought and excelled the Persians and the Byzantines in the battlefields of Ash-Sham and Iraq with respect to war strategy and leading the fight procedures. The very leaders, who succeeded Muhammad , managed to drive off the enemies of Islam, from their lands and countries, their gardens and springs, and their farms. They drove them off their honourable residence and from the grace and provisions they owned and enjoyed. Those Muslim leaders were all Muhammads men. They were imbued with the spirit of Islam at the hand of the Prophet .
Thanks to these battles, the Messenger of Allâh managed accommodation, secured land and provided chances of work for all Muslims. He, even, made a lot of inquiries about the refugee problems who (then) had no houses or fortunes. He equipped the army with weapons, horses and expenditures. He had all that realized without exercising a particle weight of injustice. The Prophet has altered the standards and aims of pre-Islamic wars. Their war was no more than robbing, killing, plundering, tyranny and aggression-oriented wars. Those wars focused on winning victory, oppressing the weakling and demolishing their houses and constructions. For them, war was a means by which they can rape or unveil women, practise cruelty against the weakling, the babies and small children, spoil tillage and race, and spread corruption on the earth. Islamic wars are different from pre-Islamic wars. A "war" in Islam is a Jihad. That is to say it is a noble sacred fight in the way of Allâh for the verification of a Muslim society that seeks to free man from oppression, tyranny and aggression. It is a society that everyone everywhere and at all times should be proud of.Pre-Islamic thoughts and traditions of Al-Jahiliyah period have been turned upside down by Islam. These were so hard upon the weakling that they had to invoke Allâh to enable them to get away from that pre-Islamic environment by saying:
The war of corruption, slaying and robbing that used to prevail has now turned into a sacred one, Al-Jihad. One of the greatest aims of Al-Jihad is to free man from the aggression, the oppression and the tyranny of men of power. A man of power, in Islam, is a weakling till after the right of the poor is taken from him. War, in Islam, is a Jihad for the purification of the land of Allâh from deception, treachery, sinful deeds and aggression. It is a sacred war that aims at spreading security, safety, mercy and compassion as well as observing the rights and magnanimity. The Messenger of Allâh had issued honourable strict rules about war and bade his soldiers and leaders to comply with them. They were forbidden to break those rules under any circumstances. In reference to Sulaiman bin Buraidahs version, who said that his father had told him that whenever the Messenger of Allâh appointed a leader on an army or on a battalion, he used to recommend him to fear Allâh, the Great and All-Mighty, when dealing with those who were closest to him and to be good with all Muslims. Then the Prophet would say to him:
The Messenger of Allâh asked people to facilitate but he forbade them to bear down hard on others or constrain. "Pacify", he said, "and do not disincline". When it happened that he arrived at the battlefield by night, he would never invade the enemy till it was morning. He utterly forbade burning (i.e. torturing people) in fire, killing children and women or even beating them. He also forbade theft and robbery and proceeded so far as to say gains acquired through plundering are not less forbidden than the flesh of a corpse. Corruption of tillage and race and cutting down of trees were all forbidden unless they were badly needed and there was no other substitute:
He decreed that envoys cannot be killed. He also stressed on not killing those who made covenants. He even said:
There were some other noble rules which purified wars from their Al-Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic) filthiness and turned them into sacred wars.
People embrace the
The invasion and the conquest of
Makkah was as we have already stated a decisive battle
that destroyed paganism utterly. The Arabs as a result of that battle
were able to differentiate the truth from the error. Delusion no
longer existed in their life. So they raced to embrace Islam. Amr
bin Salamah said: "We were at a water (spring) where the passage
of people was. So when camel riders passed by us we used to ask them:
What is the matter with people? What is this man (i.e. the
Prophet) like? They would say, He claims that Allâh
has revealed so and so. I used to memorize those words as if
they had been recited within my chest. The Arabs used to ascribe their
Islamization to the conquest. They would say: Leave him alone to
face his people. If he were a truthful Prophet he would overcome them.
So when the conquest took place, peoples hastened to declare their
Islam. My father was the quickest of all my people to embrace Islam.
Arriving at his people he said: By Allâh I have just
verily been to the Prophet
And he said: Perform so a prayer at such a time, and so and so
prayers at such and such time. When the prayer time is due let one of
you call for the prayer and appoint the most learned of the Qurân
among you to be an Imam (leader) of yours."
This Prophetic tradition manifests the great effect of the conquest of
Makkah on the phase of events. It certainly shows the influence of the
conquest of Makkah upon the consolidation of Islam as well as on the
Arabs stand and their surrender to Islam. That influence was
absolutely confirmed and deeply rooted after the invasion of Tabuk. A
clear and an obvious evidence of that influence could be deduced from
the great number of delegations arriving in Madinah successively in
the ninth and tenth years of Al-Hijra. The immense crowds of people
who raced to embrace the religion of Allâh and the great army
which included ten thousand fighters in the invasion of the conquest
of Makkah had grown big enough to include thirty thousand fighters
sharing in Tabuk
The number of delegations listed in Ahl Al-Maghazi were over seventy. Investigating such a large number is not an accessible thing; besides stating them in detail is not of a great benefit. Therefore, I am going to reveal an expose about what is historically wonderful or highly significant. Anyway a reader should always keep in mind that whilst the majority of tribes arrived in Madinah after the conquest, there were also pre-conquest delegations.
1. The delegation of Abdul Qais: This tribe had two arrivals. The first was in the fifth year of Al-Hijra or before that date. Munqidh bin Haiyan, a member of that tribe, used to trade in Madinah. So, as soon as he heard of Islam when he had arrived in it for trading that was after the migration he embraced Islam and carried a pledge from the Prophet to his people who eventually became Muslims too. Thirteen or fourteen of them came to the Prophet in one of the Hurum Months. It was then that they asked the Prophets advice about the Faith and drinks. Their chief was Al-Ashaj Al-Usri, to whom the Messenger of Allâh said: "You have two qualities that Allâh likes: They are deliberatenessandclemency."
Their second arrival was in the Year of Delegations. They were forty men. Al-Jarud bin Al-Alâ Al-Abdi, who was Christian but turned to be a good Muslim, was one of that group.
2. Daws Delegation: The arrival of this tribe was in the early times of the seventh year and that was when the Messenger of Allâh was in Khaibar. At-Tufail bin Amr Ad-Dawsi, that we have already talked about and explained how he became a Muslim at the time the Messenger of Allâh was in Makkah. He went back home to his people where he kept calling people to Islam but they tarried till he despaired of them and returned to the Messenger of Allâh and asked him to invoke Allâh against Daws but the Messenger of Allâh invoked Allâh to guide Daws. Later on, Daws embraced Islam. So At-Tufail arrived in Madinah accompanied by seventy or eighty families of his people in the early times of the seventh year of Al-Hijra, at the time that the Messenger of Allâh was at Khaibar, so he overtook him there.
3. Farwah Bani Amr Al-Judhamis messenger: Farwah was an Arab leader in the Byzantine army. He was a Byzantine agent ruler by proxy on the Arabs allied to the Byzantines. His home was at Muan and the surrounding area of Ash-Sham lands. Seeing the stamina and courage of the Muslims he became a Muslim. The battle of Mutah which took place in the eighth year of Al-Hijra compelled his admiration. He sent a white mule gift with a messenger of his to the Messenger of Allâh to inform him of his conversion into Islam. When the Byzantines learnt of his embracing Islam, they sent him to prison. At first they gave him an opportunity to choose one of the two "either he defects from Islam or death shall be his punishment." Refusing to defect they crucified him and cut his neck at a water (fountain) called Afra in Palestine.
4. Sudâ Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was after the departure of the Messenger of Allâh from Al-Jiranah in the eighth year of Al-Hijra. It was because the Messenger of Allâh had already dispatched a mission that comprised four hundred Muslims and asked them to go to where Sudâ was. Sudâ was (a fresh-water fountain) in Yemen. While the mission was camping there at the starting point of a canal. Ziyad bin Al-Harith As-Sudâi learned of their stay, so he came to the Messenger of Allâh and said: "I have come to you as a deputy of my people, so tell your army to go back and I guarantee of my people." The army were sent away off the canal. In his turn As-Sudâi went back, cherished and urged his people to come and meet the Messenger of Allâh . Eventually fifteen of them came and pledged allegiance to him as true Muslims. Returning home, they in their turn, urged the rest to be Muslims. Thus Islam spread among them. Later on, a hundred men joined the Messenger of Allâh in Hajjatul-Wada (Farewell Pilgrimage.)
5. The arrival of Kab bin Zuhair bin Abi Sulma: Kab who was a member of a family of poets, was considered one of the most poetic Arab poets. He used to satirize the Prophet when he wasnt a Muslim. In the eighth year of Al-Hijra and at the time that the Messenger of Allâh had already gone back from At-Taif invasion, Bujair bin Zuhair wrote a letter to his brother Kab warning and advising him: "The Messenger of Allâh () had killed some men in Makkah who used to satirize and harm him, and that the other poets who had survived fled in all directions for their lives. So if you want to save your skin, hasten to the Messenger of Allâh . He never kills those who resort to him as repentant. If you refuse to do as I tell, it is up to you to try to save your skin by any means." The two brothers corresponded with one another for a long time till Kab was awkward and felt as if the earth had constrained on him. Arriving in Madinah, he stayed at a mans house from Juhainah as a guest. They performed the dawn prayer together; but when he was about to leave, the man suggested that he go to the Messenger of Allâh . He went there, sat by him, put his hand in his. The Messenger of Allâh who had never seen Kab before, did not recognize him. Kab then said: "O, Messenger of Allâh! Kab bin Zuhair has come to you as a repentant Muslim; will he be secure and forgiven if I fetch him?" The Messenger of Allâh said, "Yes." "I am Kab bin Zuhair," said he. Upon hearing that one of the Helpers rose to his feet and asked the Messengers allowance to cut his throat. "Leave him alone!" Said the Prophet , "He has become a repentant Muslim after his disposal of the past." Kab then recited his well-known poem "Suad appeared..." in which he praised the Prophet , thanked him and apologized for the wrongs he had done. He acknowledged Muhammads mission. Both Emigrants and Helpers were spoken of in this poem but differently. He praised the Emigrants but criticized the Helpers, for one of them demanded a Prophets permission to kill him. Later on Kab tried to compensate for that by praising the Helpers too but that was in another poem.
6. Udharah Delegation: This delegation which consisted of twelve men, had arrived in Madinah in Safar, the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They spent three days there. One of them was Hamza bin An-Numan. When they were asked who they were, they said "We are Bani Udharah, the foster brothers of Qusai to his mother. We are the ones who supported Qusai, and removed Khuzaa and Bani Bakr from the bosom of Makkah. We have relatives and kinspeople." So the Messenger of Allâh welcomed them and gave good tidings to them, which was Ash-Sham Conquest; but he, on the other hand, forbade them from consulting a soothsayer and from eating the slain animals they slaughtered. Eventually they became Muslims, stayed there for several days then went back.
7. Bali Delegation: Their arrival was in Rabi Al-Awwal, the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They embraced Islam, stayed in Madinah for three days. Their chief Abu Ad-Dabeeb wondered whether hospitality was rewarded by Allâh. The Messenger of Allâh said:
"Yes, and so is any charity you offer to poor or rich people that is Sadaqah."
He also inquired about the time allotted to hospitality. "Three days," said he. "What about the stray ewe?"The Prophet said: "It is either yours or your brothers, otherwise it goes to the wolf." He inquired about the stray camel. "It is not of your business. Leave it alone! Its owner will try to find it."
8. Thaqif Delegation: Their arrival was in Ramadan, the ninth year of Al-Hijra, after the return of the Messenger of Allâh from Tabuk. As to how they became Muslims, this could be deduced from the following:
Their chief Urwah bin Masud
Ath-Thaqafi came to see the Messenger of Allâh
after the latters return from At-Taif in Dhul-Qadah
in the year 8 A.H. Urwah became a Muslim. He thought that when
he will tell his people and call them to embrace Islam, they would
obey him, because he had always been an obeyed Master. He was even
more beloved to them than their own firstborn. But contrary to that,
when he called them to Islam they shot arrows at him from everywhere
and killed him. They remained as they were for months before they
started discussing the situation again among themselves. Upon
realizing that they were incapable of fighting the neighbouring Arabs
who had paid allegiance to the Prophet
and converted to Islam, they made up their mind to dispatch a man to
the Messenger of Allâh
They concluded that Abd Yalail bin Amr would be the right
When they entered into the Prophets audience, a tent was pitched up in a corner of the mosque so that they might listen to the Qurân and see people at prayer. During their stay they came again and again to the Prophet who kept on calling them to embrace Islam, till their chief asked the Messenger of Allâh to enter into a peace treaty between him and Thaqif by means of which he allows them to commit fornication, drink wine and deal with usury. They also asked him not to injure their tyrant idol "Al-Lat" or to oblige them to perform the prayer. Finally they insisted that they would not knock down the idols themselves. But the Messenger of Allâh turned down all their requests. They went aside to council. Realizing that there were no other alternatives they yielded and professed Islam. The only condition that they insisted on was that the demolition of Al-Lat should be dealt with and handled by the Messenger of Allâh whereas Thaqif should in no way knock it down themselves. The Messenger of Allâh agreed and took a pledge with them.
Being the most attentive and the keenest to study jurisprudence and learn Qurân, Uthman bin Abi Al-As was appointed by the Messenger of Allâh a prince on his people. His keenness and carefulness to learn the Qurân and study jurisprudence were clearly discernible through his behaviour during their stay.
Everyday morning, the group of delegates used to go and see the Messenger of Allâh . Being the youngest one, Uthman bin Abi Al-As was left behind with their camels and things to keep an eye on. At noon when they came back and slept, Uthman used to go to the Messenger of Allâh in order to learn the Qurân and inquire about religious matters. If it happened that the Messenger of Allâh was asleep, he would then go to Abu Bakr for the same purpose. With the passage of time, he turned out to be a source of blessing to his people. For at the Apostasy Times (Ar-Riddah) when Thaqif were determined to apostatize, he addressed them saying: "O, folkmen of Thaqif! You have been the latest at embracing Islam, so do not be the first to apostatize." Consequently they gave up apostasy and clung fast to Islam.
The group of delegates returned home but they were determined to conceal the truth for a while. They told their people to expect fight at any moment. They pretended to be grieved and depressed. They claimed that the Messenger of Allâh demanded that they should embrace Islam and abandon adultery, drinking wine and dealing with usury and some other things, or else he would fight them. Seized by the arrogance and zeal of Al-Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic traditions), Thaqif remained for days intent on fighting. Then Allâh cast terror and dismay in their hearts in such a way that they gave up fighting and thought that the delegation should go back to him and announce their approval. It was until then that the group of delegates told them the truth and revealed the items of their peace-talk with the Prophet, consequently Thaqif embraced Islam.
The Messenger of Allâh sent some men to demolish the idol called "Al-Lat" under the command of Khalid bin Al-Waleed. Al-Mugheerah bin Shubah, stood to his feet, held the hoe and the ax and said: "By Allâh, I will make you laugh at Thaqif." He struck with them, and pretended to fall down while running. The people of Thaqif trembled at that sight and said: "May Allâh dismay Al-Mugheerah off. The goddess has killed him." Hearing that Al-Mugheerah leapt up to his feet and said: "May Allâh bring shame on you. Al-Lat is nothing but a mass of dirt and stones." Then he struck the door and broke it. He mounted its highest wall, and so did the other men. They knocked Al-Lat down till they levelled it with the ground. Then they dug up its foundation and brought out its jewels and garments; to the great astonishment of Thaqif. Khalid bin Al-Waleed and his group came back to the Messenger of Allâh carrying Al-Lats jewels and garments. The Messenger of Allâh distributed them and thanked Allâh for helping his Prophet and solidifying his religion.
9. The message of the Yemeni kings: After the return of the Messenger of Allâh from Tabuk, a message came to him from the kings of Himyar, Al-Harith bin Abd Kilal, Naeem bin Abd Kilal, An-Numan bin Qeel Dhi Rain, Hamdan and Muafir. Their messenger was Malik bin Murrah Ar-Rahawi. They sent him in order to inform the Prophet about their embracing Islam and their parting with polytheism. In reply to their message, the Messenger of Allâh gave them the pledge of Allâh and the pledge of His Messenger provided they paid the tribute, which was still overdue. He sent to them some of his Companions under the command of Muadh bin Jabal - may Allah be pleased with him -.
10. Hamdan Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was in the ninth year of Al-Hijra after the Messengers return from Tabuk. So the Messenger of Allâh gave them a pledge to guarantee the fulfillment of their demands. He sent to them Malik bin An-Namt as their chief, and appointed him as an agent on those of his people who embraced Islam. Khalid bin Al-Waleed was appointed for them all with a purpose of calling them to Islam. He stayed with them for six months calling them to Islam but no one responded to his call. Later on Ali bin Abi Talib was dispatched there and Khalid was ordered to come back. Upon arriving at Hamdan, Ali communicated to them a message from the Messenger of Allâh and called them to Islam. They responded to the call and became Muslims. Ali wrote to the Messenger of Allâh informing him of the good tidings. The Messenger of Allâh was briefed on the content of that letter, so he prostrated, then raised his head up and said: "Peace be upon Hamdan. Peace be upon Hamdan."
11. The Delegation of Bani Fazarah: Upon the Messengers return from Tabuk, the delegation of Bani Fazarah came to see him. That was in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. The group of delegates were over ten men. They came in order to profess Islam and complain about the drought of their region. The Messenger of Allâh ascended the pulpit, lifted his hands up and implored Allâh to send rain forth onto them and said:
"O Allâh let rain fall down, and water Your country and animals, and spread Your mercy and bring to life the dead lands. O Allâh send rain that would be saving, comforting, and sprouting grass, and overwhelming vast areas sooner and later. Let it be useful rain and not harmful. O Allâh let it be rain of mercy and not rain of torture and chastisement. Let that rain not be destructive or floody. O Allâh send us down water and help to fight the enemies."
12. Najrans Delegation: Najran is rather a big area of land. It was at a distance of seven trip stages southwards of Makkah towards Yemen. It included seventy three villages. It took a fast-rider one day ride to get there. Its military forces consisted of a hundred thousand fighters.
Their arrival was in the year 9 A.H. The delegation comprised sixty men. Twenty-four of them were of noble families. Three out of twenty-four were at one time leaders of Najran. Al-Aqib, i.e. who was in charge of princehood and government affairs. His name was Abdul Maseeh. The second was As-Saiyid (the Master) under whose supervision were the educational and political affairs; his name was Al-Aiham or Sharhabeel. Abu Haritha bin Alqamah was the third. He was a bishop to whom all religious presidency and spiritual leadership belonged and were his charge.
When that group of delegates arrived in Madinah, they met the Prophet , exchanged inquiries with him; but when he called them to Islam and recited the Qurân to them, they refused. They asked him what he thought about Isa (i.e. Jesus), - peace be upon him - , he tarried a whole day till the following Qurânic reply was revealed to him:
"Verily, the likeness of Jesus before Allâh is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: Be! and he was. (This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of those who doubt. Then whoever disputes with you concerning him (Jesus) after (all this) knowledge that has come to you, (i.e. Jesus being a slave of Allâh, and having no share in Divinity) say: (O Muhammad ) Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves then we pray and invoke (sincerely) the Curse of Allâh upon those who lie." [3:59-61]
When it was morning, the Messenger of Allâh told them what Iesa (Jesus) was in the light of the recently revealed verses. He left them a whole day to consult and think it over. So when it was next morning and they still showed disapproval to admit Allâhs Words about Isa or to embrace Islam, the Prophet suggested Al-Mubahala that is each party should supplicate and implore Allâh to send His Curse upon him or them if they were telling lies. After that suggestion of his, the Prophet came forward wrapping Al-Hasan and Al-Husain under his garment whereas Fatimah was walking at his back. Seeing that the Prophet was serious and prepared to face them firmly, they went aside and started consulting. Al-Aqib and As-Saiyid (i.e. the Master) said to each other: "We shall not supplicate. For, I swear by Allâh, if he is really a Prophet and exchanges curses with us, we will never prosper nor will the descendants of ours. Consequently neither us nor our animals will survive it." Finally they made their mind to resort to the Messenger of Allâhs judgement about their cause. They came to him and said: "We grant you what you have demanded." The Messenger of Allâh then admitted that agreement and ordered them to pay Al-Jizya (i.e. tribute) and he made peace with them for the provision of two thousand garments, one thousand of them to be delivered in Rajab, the other thousand ones in Safar. With every garment they had to pay an ounce (of gold). In return they will have the covenant of Allâh and His Messenger. He gave them a covenant that provides for practicing their religious affairs freely. They asked the Prophet to appoint a trustworthy man to receive the money agreed on for peace, so he sent them the trustworthy man of this nation Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah to receive the amounts of money agreed on in the peace treaty.
By the time Islam started to spread in Najran, naturally, they did not have to pay Al-Jizya that usually non-Muslims paid. Whatever the case was, it was said that Al-Aqib and As-Saiyid embraced Islam as soon as they reached Najran on their journey back home. It is also said that the Prophet sent to them Ali too, for the collection of charities and tribute.
13. Bani Haneefa Delegation: They arrived in Madinah in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They were 17 in number and included the Master of Liars, Musailimabin Thumamah bin Kabeer bin Habeeb bin Al-Harith of Bani Haneefa The group of delegates were housed in a Helpers house. They came to the Prophet and declared their Islamization. As for Musailima the liar, versions vary concerning his embracing Islam. Contemplation of all these versions shows clearly that Musailima expressed disapproval and revealed haughtiness, boastful spirit and expectations to be a prince.
At first the Prophet attempted going on well with him. he dealt with him nicely and charitably but that did not do with him. The Messenger of Allâh perceived evil in his soul and recognized that he was one of those three evils he dreamt of while asleep.
The Prophet had already dreamt that he had been granted the treasures of earth. His hand fell upon two golden bracelets, which distressed and worried him a lot. He was taught by inspiration to blow them off, so he did that and they were gone off. They were interpreted to be two liars who would turn up after the death of Muhammad . So when Musailima acted that way and showed disapproval, he realized that he would be one of the two liars. However Musailima used to say, "If Muhammad appointed me a successor of his, I would be a Muslim. Later on the Messenger of Allâh came to him, with a piece of palm leaf in his hand, and in the company of his orator, Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas. He was among some of his friends. The Prophet talked to him but Musailima addressed him saying: "If you agree to transfer the whole thing to me after your death, I will not stand in your way." The Messenger of Allâh replied: "If you asked me to give you this (i.e. a piece of a palm leaf), I would not grant it to you. You are doomed. Even if you repented and stopped what you were doing, Allâh appointed that you would be slain. By Allâh, I swear, that I see you now in the very state that has been revealed to me. Here is Thabit! You will hear my answer (from him)." Then he went away.
Finally, the Prophets predictions of Musailima came true; for when Musailima returned to Yamama, he kept on thinking about the Prophet and how he would be his partner. His dreams and thoughts went so far as to claim that he himself was a prophet. To confirm his prophecy he started uttering rhymed statements. He said that it was lawful to drink wine and commit adultery. He, however, bore witness that the Messenger of Allâh was a real Prophet. His people, who were fascinated by what he allowed them to do, followed him and made bargains with him. He grew so prominent among them that they called him the beneficent of Al-Yamama. He wrote to the Messenger of Allâh saying: "I have been appointed an associate with you, so I will have a half and Quraish will have the other half of the peoples affairs." The Messenger of Allâhs reply was a letter saying that:
"Verily, the earth is Allâhs. He gives it as a heritage to whom He will of His slaves, and the (blessed) end is for the Muttaqûn (pious)." [7:128]
On the authority of Ibn Masud, he says: When the two messengers of Musailima Ibn An-Nawaha and Ibn Athal came to the Messenger of Allâh , he asked them: "Do you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allâh?" Their reply was "We testify that Musailima is the Messenger of Allâh." "I believe in Allâh and in His Messenger," said the Prophet , "If I had ever thought of killing a messenger I would have killed you both."
Musailimas pretence to prophethood was in the tenth year of Al-Hijra. But he was killed in Al-Yamama war during Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq era, in Rabi Al-Awwal, in the twelfth year of Al-Hijra. He was killed by Wahshi, the killer of Hamzah. The second person who claimed to be a prophet was Al-Aswad Al-Ansi who was in Yemen. He was killed by Fairuz. His head was cut off a day and a night before the Prophets death. So when the delegates came he told them the news that reached him through Divine Revelation. News about his death reached Abu Bakr - may Allah be pleased with him - from Yemen.
14. The Delegation of Bani Amir bin Sasaa: Among the group of delegates were Amir bin At-Tufail the enemy of Allâh, Arbad bin Qais Labids maternal brother, Khalid bin Jafar, and Jabbar bin Aslam. All of them were the leaders and satans of their people. Amir was the one who double-crossed the group of Mauna well. When this delegation made their mind to come to Madinah, Amir and Arbad conspired to kill the Prophet . So when the group of delegates arrived, Amir kept on talking to the Prophet whereas Arbad turned aside trying to draw his sword. He managed to draw a span of hand long but Allâh stilled his hand so that he was unable to proceed with its withdrawal. Allâh protected the Prophet . The Prophet invoked Allâh against them. So when they returned, Allâh sent down a thunderbolt unto Arbad and his camel and he was burnt. As for Amir he called at a house of a woman who was from Bani Salul and had a gland sore. He eventually died while he was saying: "What am I like? I have a gland similar to a camels. And here I am dying in the house of the woman from Bani Salul."
In Sahih Al-Bukhari it is narrated that Amir came to the Prophet and said: "I grant you an opportunity to choose one of two: you will have the flat land people and I will have townspeople; or I will succeed you. Otherwise, I will invade your people with a thousand he-camels and a thousand she-camels." But, later on he got plague-stricken in a womans house. So he said: "What! I have a gland similar to a camels, and here I am in a womans house of Bani so and so people. Fetch me my mare!" He mounted it but died on its back.
15. Tujeeb Delegation: They came to Madinah carrying the surplus of charities (Sadaqat) of their people. That is to say the extra charities they had after they had distributed the poor-due. They were thirteen men. They asked about the Qurân and Sunnah (the Prophets saying, deeds and sanctions) so that they might learn them. They demanded things from the Messenger of Allâh to which he gave them pledges. They did not stay long; so when the Messenger of Allâh acknowledged their demands and allowed them to depart, they sent him a boy whom they had already left at their property. The young man said to the Prophet : "By Allâh, I swear, I have left my home (for Madinah) with a purpose that you invoke Allâh, the Great and All-Mighty for me to forgive me and have mercy on me and to make my heart a source of content and sufficiency." The Messenger of Allâh supplicated Allâh to grant him what he demanded.
From that time on, he was the most contented person. In Ar-Riddah (i.e. the Apostasy Times), he stoodfast as a Muslim and warned his people and reminded them of Allâh and went on preaching them till they stoodfast and did not apostatize. The group of delegates met the Prophet again in the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year of Al-Hijra.
16. Tai Delegation: One of that group of delegates who came to meet the Prophet was Zaid Al-Khail. They talked to the Prophet who urged them to embrace Islam. They agreed and grew good Muslims. About Zaid, the Messenger of Allâh said: "The Arabs are never exact at estimating people. They have never told me about the virtues of a man correctly; for when I see the man concerned I realize that they have overestimated him except Zaid Al-Khail, when I met him I knew that they had underestimated him." Then he named him Zaid Al-Khair (i.e. Zaid, the bounteous).
The delegations arrived successively in Madinah during the ninth and tenth of Al-Hijra. Biographers and invasion-writers have written down about some of Yemen delegations. They were Al-Azd; Bani Sad Hadheem from Qudaah, Bani Amir bin Qais; Bani Asad, Bahra, Khaulan, Muharib, Bani Al-Harith bin Kab, Ghamid, Bani Al-Muntafiq, Salaman, Bani Abs, Muzainah, Murad, Zabid, Kinda, Dhi Murrah, Ghassan, Bani Aish, and Nakh which were the last group of delegates. Nakh Delegation comprised two hundred men and they arrived in the middle of Muharram in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra. The majority of these groups of delegates arrived during the ninth and tenth years of Al-Hijra. The arrival of some of them tarried till the eleventh year of Al-Hijra.
The succession of these delegations indicated the great degree of the entire acceptance which the Islamic Call reached. It manifested its influence and domination on vast areas of Arabia . The Arabs observed Al-Madinah with such a great respect and estimation that they could do nothing but surrender and submit to it. Al-Madinah had become the headquarters of all Arabia; so it was impossible to avoid it. We dare not say that all the Arabians were possessed and enchanted by this religion. There were lots of hard-hearted bedouins among the Arabs who surrendered (i.e. became Muslims) only because their master did so. Their souls were not sanctified yet. Their tendency to raids had been deeply rooted in their souls. The teachings of Islam had not crystallized their souls well yet. Accounting some of them the Qurân says:
The Qurân praised others saying:
Those of them who were present at Makkah, Madinah and Thaqif and in many other areas of Al-Yemen and Al-Bahrain were different because Islam had been firmly rooted in their souls. Some of them were great Companions and Masters of Muslims.
The Success and
Before we move one more step and meditate on the last days of the Messenger of Allâhs life, we ought to cast a quick glance at the great work that was a peculiarity of his. That very peculiarity that made him excel all other Prophets and Messengers and made him so superb that Allâh made him atop the formers and the latters. It was him that was addressed by:
So he arose and kept on like that for over twenty years. During those years he undertook to carry the burdens of the great expectations on his shoulders for the sake of the whole mankind and humanity, the Faith and Jihad in various fields.
The Messenger of Allâh undertook the burdens of struggle and Al-Jihad in the conscience of mankind which was then drowning in the illusions of Al-Jahiliyah and its images that were loaded with the ground weights and gravitations. He took upon his shoulder to free mans conscience which was chained with desires and lusts. As soon as he had freed the conscience of his Companions from the burdens and heaps of Al-Jahiliyah and earthly life, he started another battle in another field or rather successive battles against the enemy of Allâhs Call, and against those who conspired against it. It was a battle against those who conspired against the believers and against those who were so careful to tend that pure plant in its implantation before it grew up and stretched its roots in soil and extended its branches up into the air and thus dawned upon other areas. No sooner had he finished the battles in the Arabian Peninsula than the Byzantines began preparations to destroy this new nation on the northern borders.
The first battle i.e. the battle of conscience was not over yet. It was in fact a perpetual one. Satan, who was its leader did not spare a moment without exercising his activity in the depth of human conscience. Muhammad , on the other hand was attending on calling to Allâhs religion there and he was keen on fighting that perpetual battle in all fields in spite of their hard circumstances and the worlds conspiracy against him. He went on calling effectively and actively surrounded by the believers who were seeking security through ceaseless toil and great patience.
The Companions acted perpetually and patiently by day and they spent the night worshipping their Lord, reciting and memorizing the Qurân glorifying and magnifying Allâh and imploring Him by night; all that at the behest of their Lord, the All-Mighty.
For over twenty years the Messenger of Allâh had been leading that progressive steady battle, disregarding any other affairs that kept him off that noble goal. He went on that way till the Islamic Call proved to be successful on a large scale that puzzled all men possessed of good reason.
The Islamic Call eventually prevailed all over Arabia. It removed all traces of Al-Jahiliyah from the horizon of the peninsula. The sick minds of Al-Jahiliyah grew healthy in Islam. They did not only get rid of idol-worship, but they also knocked them down. The general atmosphere began to echo "there is no god but Allâh." The calls to prayers were heard five times a day penetrating space and breaking the silence of the dead desert and bringing back life through the new belief. Reciters and memorizers of the Qurân set out northwards and southwards reciting verses of the Qurân and carrying out Allâhs injunctions.
Scattered people and tribes were united and man moved from mans worship of man to mans worship of Allâh. There were no more oppressors nor oppressed; no masters nor slaves, nor people bound to other people, nor aggressors that would practise aggression. All people were slaves of Allâh. They were beloved brothers obeying Allâhs rules. Thanks to Allâh they disposed of arrogance and the boastful spirit:
Thanks to the Islamic Call, the Arab unity had become a reality, and so was the case with human unity and social justice as far as their earthly and heavenly affairs were concerned. The time course of events had changed, the features on the earths surface and the crooked line of history had grown straight and the mentality had been rectified.
The spirit and the corrupted conscience of people, the distorted values and measures of Al-Jahiliyah had overwhelmed the whole world during that period of Al-Jahiliyah. The prevalence of slavery, injustice, extravagant luxury, adultery, depression, deprivity, disbelief, stray from the straight path and darkness; all of those were fait accomplis in spite of the existence of the heavenly religions. The teachings of those religions had grown weak and lost all influence on mens souls and spirits and became mere lifeless ritual traditions.
When this Call had accomplished its role in human life, it freed mankinds spirit of superstitions, illusions, white slavery, corruption and mans worship of man. Islam had freed the human society of filth, dissolution, injustice and tyranny. There were no more social distinctions, nor clergymens or governors dictatorship. Islam had set up a world built on solid virtuous and clean foundations, it was based on positivity, righteous construction, freedom and renewal. Truth, faith, dignity active steady deeds, the development and improvement of means of living and reclaim of rights were all bases upon which the Islamic state was built.
Thanks to these evolutions, Arabia witnessed such an unprecedented blessed resurrection, since construction and establishment found its way to it. Never had its history been so religious, pious and brilliant as it had been during those peculiar days of its life.
The Farewell Pilgrimage
After the accomplishment of the Call, the proclamation of the Message and the establishment of a new society on the basis of There is no god but Allâh, and on Muhammads mission, a secret call uprose in the heart of the Messenger of Allâh telling him that his stay in the Lower World was about to terminate. That was clear in his talk to Muadh whom he had dispatched to Yemen in the tenth year of Al-Hijra: "O, Muadh! You may not see me after this current year. You may even pass by this very Mosque of mine and my tomb." Upon hearing that Muadh cried for fear that he would part with the Messenger of Allâh .
Allâhs care was so bounteous as to let the Prophet see the fruits of his Call for the sake of which he suffered various sorts of trouble for over twenty years. Those twenty years had elapsed actively. He used to spend his last days meeting, at the outskirts of Makkah, members of tribes and their representatives who used to consult him and learn the laws and legislation of Islam from him, and in return he used to exact their testimony that he had delivered trust and communicated the Message and counselled the people.
The Messenger of Allâh announced an intention to proceed with this blessed pilgrimage journey himself. Enormous crowds of people came to Madinah, all of whom seek the guidance and Imamate of the Messenger of Allâh in the pilgrimage (Al-Hajj).On a Saturday of the last four days of Dhul-Qadah, the Prophet started the departure preparations procedure.He combed his hair, applied some perfume, wore his garment, saddled his camel and set off in the afternoon. He arrived at Dhul-Hulaifa before the afternoon prayer. He performed two Raka and spent the night there. When it was morning he said to his Companions:
Before performing the noon prayer, he bathed for Ihram (ritual consecration), and Aishah - may Allah be pleased with him - perfumed him on both his body and head with her hand with a Dharira (a plant) and with a perfume containing musk. The thick sticky layer of perfume could be seen among his parts of hair and beard. He left it unwashed, wore his loincloth and garment. He performed the noon prayer shortened, two Raka. He proclaimed pilgrimage procedure associated with Umrah at his prayer-place. He, then mounted his she-camel Al-Qaswa, and proclaimed: There is no god but Allâh. When he moved into the desert, he acclaimed the Name of Allâh.
He proceeded with his journey till he approached Makkah. He spent the night at Dhi Tuwa and entered Makkah after performing the dawn prayer. He had a bath on Sunday morning, the fourth of Dhul-Hijjah the tenth year of Al-Hijra. He spent eight days on the way, which was an average period. As soon as he entered Al-Haram Mosque he circumambulated Al-Kabah and walked to and fro (Sai) between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. He did not finish the Ihram (ritual consecration) because he was Qarin (i.e. intending Umrah and Al-Hajj associated). He then took Al-Hadi (i.e. the sacrificial animals) in order to slaughter them. He camped on a high place of Makkah Al-Hajun. As for circumambulation, he performed only that of Al-Hajj (pilgrimage circumambulation).
Those of his Companions who had no Hadi with them to sacrifice, were ordered to observe Ihram (i.e. the state of ritual consecration) into Umrah (i.e. lesser pilgrimage), and circumambulate Al-Kabah and stride ritually to and fro between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. After that they could relieve themselves from Ihram. They, however, showed reluctance to do what they had been told. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allâh said: "Had I known beforehand what I knew afterward, I would not bring Hadi, and if I did not have Hadi, I would break Ihram. On hearing these words, his Companions obeyed the orders to the latter.
On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah that is the Day of Tarwiyah, he left for Mina where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset, the evening and the dawn prayers. i.e. five prayers. Then he stayed for a while till the sun rose up then he passed along till he reached Arafah, where there was a tent built for him at Namirah. He sat inside till the sun went down. He ordered that Al-Qaswa, his she-camel, should be prepared for him. They saddled it and had it ready, so he went down the valley where a hundred thousand and twenty-four or forty-four thousand people gathered round him. There he stood up and delivered the following speech:
"Behold! all practices of paganism and ignorance are now under my feet. The blood-revenge of the Days of Ignorance (pre-Islamic time) are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabia bin Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Sad and whom Hudhail killed. Usury is forbidden, and I make a beginning by remitting the amount of interest which Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib has to receive. Verily, it is remitted entirely."
"O people! Fear Allâh concerning women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allâh and have made their persons lawful unto you by Words of Allâh! It is incumbent upon them to honour their conjugal rights and, not to commit acts of impropriety which, if they do, you have authority to chastise them, yet not severely. If your wives refrain from impropriety and are faithful to you, clothe and feed them suitably."
"Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allâh and the Sunnah (Traditions) of His Messenger which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray."
"O people, I am not succeeded by a Prophet and you are not succeeded by any nation. So I recommend you to worship your Lord, to pray the five prayers, to fast Ramadan and to offer the Zakat (poor-due) of your provision willingly. I recommend you to do the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of your Lord and to obey those who are in charge of you then you will be awarded to enter the Paradise of your Lord."
"And if you were asked about me, what wanted you to say?"
He then raised his forefinger skywards and then moved it down towards people while saying:
He said that phrase thrice.
The one who repeated the Prophets statements loudly at Arafat was Rabia bin Omaiyah bin Khalaf.
As soon as the Prophet had accomplished delivering the speech, the following Qurânic verse was revealed to him:
Upon hearing this verse Umar cried. "What makes you cry?" He was asked. His answer was: "Nothing succeeds perfection but imperfection."
Bilal called for prayer after the speech, and then made the second call. The Prophet performed both of the noon and the afternoon prayers separately, with no prayers in between. He then mounted his she-camel Al-Qaswa, approached the location of the vigil, directed his face towards Al-Qiblah, kept on standing till sunset when the sky yellow colour vanished a bit and the disc of the sun disappeared. Osamah added that the Prophet moved onward to Muzdalifa. where he observed the sunset and the evening prayers with one First call and two second calls. He did not entertain the Glory of Allâh between the two prayers. Then he lay down till it was dawn prayer time. He performed it with one first call and one second call at almost daybreak time. Mounting on his Al-Qaswa, he moved towards Al-Mashar Al-Haram. He faced Al-Qiblah and started supplicating: "Allâh is the Greatest. There is no god but Allâh." He remained there till it was clear morning and before the sun rose high, he made his way to Mina. He walked a little and threaded the mid-road leading to the big Jamrah where he stopped and pelted seven pebbles at it saying "Allâh is the Greatest" each time. They were like small pebbles hurled from the bottom of the valley. Then he set off to the sacrificial place, where he sacrificed sixty-three camels with his hands, and asked Ali to slaughter the others, a hundred and thirty-seven altogether. He made Ali share him in Al-Hadi. A piece of meat from each slaughtered animal was ordered to be cooked in a pot and from which both men ate, and drank the soup.
Then the Messenger of Allâh mounted his she-camel and returned to the House where he observed the noon prayer at Makkah and there he came upon the children of Abdul Muttalib were supplying drinking water to people at Zamzam Well. "Draw up water, children of Abdul Muttalib, I would draw up with you if I were not afraid that people would appropriate this honour after me." They handed him a pail of water and he drank to his fill.
At the daytime of the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah on the Slaughtering Day (Yaum An-Nahr) The Prophet delivered another speech. That was at high time morning, while he was mounting a grey mule. Ali conveyed his statements to the people, who were standing or sitting.He repeated some of the statements that he had previously said the day before. The two Sheikh (Bukhâri and Muslim) reported a version narrated by Abi Bakrah who said:
"Time has grown similar in form and state to the time when Allâh created the heavens and the earth. A year is twelve months. Four of which are Sacred Months (Hurum). Three of the four months are successive. They are Dhul-Qadah, Dhul-Hijjah, and Al-Muharram. The fourth Month is Rajab Mudar, which comes between Jumada and Shaban."
"What month is this month?" He asked. We said: "Allâh and His Messenger know best of all." He kept silent for a while till we thought he would attach to it a different appellation. "Is it not Dhul-Hijjah?" He wondered. "Yes. It is." We said. Then he asked, "What is this town called?" We said: "Allâh and His Messenger know best of all." He was silent for a while till we thought he would give it a different name. "Is it not Al-Baldah? (i.e. the town)" asked he. "Yes. It is." We replied. Then he asked again, "What day is it today?" We replied: "Allâh and His Messenger know best of all." Then he kept silent for a while and said wondering: "Is it not An-Nahr (i.e. slaughtering) Day?" "Yes. It is." Said we. Then he said:
"(Shedding) the blood of one another and eating or taking one anothers provisions (unwillingly) and your honour are all inviolable (Haram). It is unlawful to violate their holiness. They must be as sacred to one another as this sacred day, in this sacred month, in this sacred town."
"You will go back to be resurrected (after death) to your Lord. There you will be accounted for your deeds. So do not turn into people who go astray and kill one another."
"Have I not delivered the Message (of my Lord)?" "Yes you have." Said they. "O Allâh! Bear witness! Let him that is present convey it unto him who is absent. For haply, many people to whom the Message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the audience,." said he.
In another version it is said that the Prophet had said in that very speech:
The Messenger of Allâh spent At-Tashreeq Days (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah) in Mina performing the ritual teachings of Islam, remembering Allâh (praying), following the ways of guidance of Ibrahim, wiping out all traces and features or polytheism. On some days of At-Tashreeq he delivered some speeches as well. In a version to Abu Daûd with good reference to Sira, the daughter of Nabhan; she said: "The Messenger of Allâh made us a speech at the Ruus (Heads) Day in which he said: "Is it not this the middle day of At-Tashreeq Days."
His speech that day was similar to that of An-Nahr Days. It was made after the revelation of Surat An-Nasr.
On the second day of An-Nafr (i.e. Departure) on the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah, the Prophet .proceeded with An-Nafr to Mina and stayed at a high place of a mountain side at Bani Kinanah from Al-Abtah. He spent the rest of that day and night there where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset and the evening prayers.
Then he slept for a short while and mounted leaving for the Kabah. He performed the Farewell Circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wada), after ordering his Companions to do the same thing.
Upon the accomplishment of his religious rituals he quickened his move to the purified Madinah. He went there not to seek rest but to resume the strife and struggle in the way of Allâh.
The Last Expeditions
The pride of the Byzantine State made it deny Muslims their right to live. The Byzantine arrogance made them even kill those agents of theirs, who embraced Islam. Killing Farwah bin Amr Al-Judhami, who was their agent on Muan, was an evidence of their arrogance. Due to that arrogance and presumptuousness of the Byzantines, the Messenger of Allâh started to mobilize a great army in Safar in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra and made it under the command of Osamah bin Zaid bin Haritha with orders to have the horses of Muslims tread on the lands bordering Al-Balqa and Ad-Darum of Palestine. His aim was to terrorize Byzantines and to implant confidence into the hearts of Arabs who were settled at the borders of the Byzantines. His other purpose was to deliver a message to everybody there, so that no one may dare say that the Church brutality cant go with impunity; and that Islamization is not synonymous with fear and vulnerability.
The leadership of Osamah was subject to criticism. Because he was still too young, people tarried at joining his expedition. The Messenger of Allâh addressed people saying:
So people started tending towards Osamah and joined his army. The number of volunteers in his army was so enormous that they formed such a long queue that they had to descend the escarpment which was a parasang off Madinah. The anxiety-provoking news about the Messenger of Allâhs sickness, however, made the expedition tarry again in order to know what Allâh had willed as regards His Messenger .
It was Allâhs Will that Osamahs expedition would be the first one dispatched during the caliphate of the veracious Abu Bakr.